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The Mimetic Brain
  • Language: en

The Mimetic Brain

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 2016-01-01
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  • Publisher: MSU Press

The discovery of mirror neurons in the 1990s led to an explosion of research and debate about the imitative capacities of the human brain. Some herald a paradigm shift on the order of DNA in biology, while others remain skeptical. In this revolutionary volume Jean- Michel Oughourlian shows how the hypotheses of René Girard can be combined with the insights of neuroscientists to shed new light on the “mimetic brain.” Offering up clinical studies and a complete reevaluation of classical psychiatry, Oughourlian explores the interaction among reason, emotions, and imitation and reveals that rivalry—the blind spot in contemporary neuroscientific understandings of imitation—is a misunderstood driving force behind mental illness. Oughourlian’s analyses shake the very foundations of psychiatry as we know it and open up new avenues for both theoretical research and clinical practice.

The Genesis of Desire
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 176

The Genesis of Desire

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 2009-12-15
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  • Publisher: MSU Press

We seem to be abandoning the codes that told previous generations who they should love. But now that many of us are free to choose whoever we want, nothing is less certain. The proliferation of divorces and separations reveal a dynamic we would rather not see: others sometimes reject us as passionately as we are attracted to them. Our desire makes us sick. The throes of rivalry are at the heart of our attraction to one another. This is the central thesis of Jean-Michel Oughourlian's The Genesis of Desire, where the war of the sexes is finally given a scientific explanation. The discovery of mirror neurons corroborates his ideas, clarifying the phenomena of empathy and the mechanisms of violent reciprocity. How can a couple be saved when they have declared war on one another? By helping them realize that desire originates not in the self but in the other. There are strategies that can help, which Dr. Oughourlian has prescribed successfully to his patients. This work, alternating between case studies and more theoretical statements, convincingly defends the possibility that breakups need not be permanent.

Psychopolitics
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 98

Psychopolitics

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 2012-10-01
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  • Publisher: MSU Press

For thousands of years, political leaders have unified communities by aligning them against common enemies. However, today more than ever, the search for “common” enemies results in anything but unanimity. Scapegoats like Saddam Hussein, for example, led to a stark polarization in the United States. Renowned neuropsychiatrist and psychologist Jean-Michel Oughourlian proposes that the only authentic enemy is the one responsible for both everyday frustrations and global dangers, such as climate change—ourselves. Oughourlian, who pioneered an “interdividual” psychology with René Girard, reveals how all people are bound together in a dynamic, contingent process of imitation, and shows that the same patterns of irrational mimetic desire that bring individuals together and push them apart also explain the behavior of nations.

The Puppet of Desire
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 263

The Puppet of Desire

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 1991
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  • Publisher: Unknown

This study of the psychology of desire derives from a theory of imitative or 'mimetic' desire developed by the cultural critic and theorist Rene; Girard. The theory is essentially that all human beings have an instinctive tendency, a kind of social and psychological gravitation, to imitate unwittingly not only the actions but also the attitudes and desires of others. The author, a practicing psychiatrist, extends and amplifies this theory from the viewpoint of psychopathology and applies it to the study of hysteria, possession, and hypothesis. He argues that these phenomena are best understood as expressions of mimetic behaviour, and he traces the history of the ideas concerning hysteria, po...

Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 469

Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 2003
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  • Publisher: A&C Black

Presenting an original global theory of culture, Girard explores the social function of violence and the mechanism of the social scapegoat. His vision is a challenge to conventional views of literature, anthropology, religion and psychoanalysis. Rene Gerard is the Andrew B. Hammond Professor Emeritus of French Language, Literature and Civilization at Stanford University, USA.

LE DESIR : ENERGIE ET FINALITE
  • Language: fr
  • Pages: 190

LE DESIR : ENERGIE ET FINALITE

Le but de ce présent ouvrage est de mettre à la disposition du lecteur le point de vue de la théorie mimétique, de la théorie freudienne, de la théorie lacanienne, de la théorie cognitiviste et de la philosophie sur les deux questions fondamentales de la nature et de l'origine de l'énergie du désir, d'une part, et de la genèse de sa finalité d'autre part

HYSTERIE TRANSE POSSESSION
  • Language: fr
  • Pages: 312

HYSTERIE TRANSE POSSESSION

Y a-t-il un principe qui gouverne les sciences humaines - la mimésis universelle - à la manière dont la gravitation universelle gouverne les sciences physiques. La mimésis permet d'expliquer à la fois l'attraction et la répulsion des humains entre eux, la suggestion et l'imitation, l'influence et la soumission, l'amour et la haine. Jean-Michel Oughourlian voit dans la mimésis universelle le principe du mouvement en psychologie ; ce mouvement ne fait qu'un avec le désir et le désir est mimétique.

Notre troisième cerveau
  • Language: fr
  • Pages: 336

Notre troisième cerveau

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 2013-04-02
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  • Publisher: Albin Michel

« Ce n'est pas moi qui désire, c'est mon désir qui crée ce que j'appelle “moi”. Et comme ce désir s'avère toujours copié sur celui d'autrui, c'est l'ensemble de la psychologie et de la psychiatrie qu'il faut reconsidérer. L'altérité nous constitue de pied en cap, sur le plan philosophique comme neurologique, et cela change tout, notamment dans nos façons de soigner l'esprit. » Parti de la théorie du désir mimétique du philosophe René Girard - que la découverte des neurones miroirs est venue valider de façon incontestable -, le Pr Jean-Michel Oughourlian nous propose une révolution. Sa « dialectique des trois cerveaux » bouleverse notre connaissance de nous-mêmes et nos psychothérapies. Au cerveau cognitif et au cerveau émotionnel se joint le « cerveau mimétique » - troisième dans l'ordre de la découverte, mais souvent premier dans celui du fonctionnement. C'est le cerveau de l'empathie, de l'amour, mais aussi de la haine. Il nous fait voir en « l'autre » un modèle, un rival ou un obstacle. Autant de visages qui engendrent toutes formes de névroses ou de psychoses. Son approche nous invite à une nouvelle vision de l'être humain.

Il terzo cervello
  • Language: it
  • Pages: 219

Il terzo cervello

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 2014-10-22T00:00:00+02:00
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  • Publisher: Marsilio Editori

L'autore, noto in Italia per "Delle cose nascoste sin dalla fondazione del mondo" scritto con il filosofo René Girard, partendo dalla teoria del desiderio mimetico, convalidata dalla scoperta dei neuroni specchio, dimostra l'esistenza di un terzo cervello. Al cervello cognitivo e a quello emotivo si aggiunge il cervello mimetico, persino il più importante dei tre, che ci fa vedere nell'«altro» un modello, un rivale o un ostacolo generando forme di nevrosi o psicosi. Questa teoria sconvolge la conoscenza di noi stessi e le psicoterapie e invita a una nuova visione dell'essere umano.

Un mime nommé désir
  • Language: fr
  • Pages: 311

Un mime nommé désir

Y-a-t-il un principe qui gouverne les sciences humaines - la mimésis universelle - à la manière dont la gravitation universelle gouverne les sciences physiques ? La mimésis permet d'expliquer à la fois l'attraction et la répulsion des humains entre eux, la suggestion et l'imitation, l'influence et la soumission, l'amour et la haine. Jean-Michel Oughourlian voit dans la mimésis universelle le principe du mouvement en psychologie. Ce mouvement ne fait qu'un avec le désir et le désir est mimétique. L'analyse de réalités cliniques, de prime abord hétérogènes - magie, envoûtement, sorcellerie, exorcisme, possession, hystérie, hypnose - ainsi que de textes apparemment les plus él...