How do we see the world around us? The Penguin on Design series includes the works of creative thinkers whose writings on art, design and the media have changed our vision forever. "Seeing comes before words. The child looks and recognizes before it can speak." "But there is also another sense in which seeing comes before words. It is seeing which establishes our place in the surrounding world; we explain that world with words, but word can never undo the fact that we are surrounded by it. The relation between what we see and what we know is never settled." John Berger's Ways of Seeing is one of the most stimulating and influential books on art in any language. First published in 1972, it was based on the BBC television series about which the (London) Sunday Times critic commented: "This is an eye-opener in more ways than one: by concentrating on how we look at paintings . . . he will almost certainly change the way you look at pictures." By now he has.
This title was first published in 2003. An escapee from the Gestapo, Hans Keller was already known as a critic, teacher, analyst, psychologist, sociologist and polemicist when he joined the BBC. A major influence on a generation of musicians, he remained true to his high ideals and the principle of unity even beyond his own tenure.
The systematic use of propaganda is very much a phenomenon of the 20th century. Through the years, kings, political leaders, and statesmen have often made use of what might now be called "propaganda tech niques" but it is only within the present century that the use of pro paganda has been developed as a systematic instrument of national and foreign policy. Nonetheless, since World War II propaganda has become a regular peacetime instrument of foreign policy for most states, be they large or small. While some considerable attention has been given to the propaganda organisations and activities of the United States and certain Com munist nations, especially the U.S.S.R., relatively little has been done on the British approach to propaganda. The present study attempts to at least partially fill that vacuum. A history of the overseas Informa tion Services is not undertaken and I will leave that important task to future scholars. Instead I have examined the British approach to the organisation of propaganda and the mechanics they have developed to utilize this instrument of foreign policy.